breast cancer happens when abnormal cells divide in an uncontrolled way. Most of this kind of disease start when genetic changes make one cell or few cells turn rogue in a person’s lifetime. Breasts cancers is basically a malignant tumour formed by the abnormal cells in the breast. It can appear in different parts of the breasts, viz. the lobules that are the milk-producing ducts or the glands which carry the milk to the nipple and the surrounding connective tissues. Typically breasts illness begins in the ducts or lobules.
These are the most frequent forms of breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma: In this type of cancer, the cancer cells grow uncontrollably outside the ducts, which are tubes to carry milk to the nipples. Lobular Carcinoma: In this case cancer cells are formed in the milk glands, the lobules. Both these two kinds of breasts cancers can spread to other organs if not treated on time. There is also some less common breasts disease. These are Paget’s disease: This is a rare type of cancer involving the skin of the nipple called the areola. The cancer cells, in this case, are found in the epidermis of the skin. It may or may not be accompanied by a tumour. Inflammatory Breast Cancer: This happens when cancer has spread to the skin of the breasts and the lymph vessels are blocked with the cancer cells in the skin. There may not be any lumps in the breasts that can be felt. These are usually staged IIIB, stage IIIC or stage IV cancer. Ductal Carcinoma: It is a chest disease which in a later stage, if not treated, may turn into a breasts disorder. In this case, cancer cells are found only in the lining of the ducts which have not spread to other tissues in the breast. There are over 200 types of known cancers by which human beings get affected. The most common type of cancer found in women is Breast Cancer. It is one of the leading causes of death among women.
The first and foremost way to find out if there is something wrong with the breasts is self-examination. One should look for the change in size, shape and colour of the breasts. If there is any swelling, redness, dimpling, or if the nipple has changed position or got inverted, if there is any discharge from the nipples, or a lump is felt on touching the breasts or armpits, one should immediately consult with a doctor. On time detection of breast cancer is a big bonus. It increases the success of treatment and survival of patients. Following tests and procedures are involved to diagnose cancer of breasts:
Physical examination of Breasts:
This becomes the first step of the diagnosis. The doctor checks for lumps and lymph nodes in the breasts and armpits. Mammogram X-Ray: On a finding of any lump or abnormality, the doctor then recommends an x-ray of the breast called mammogram. If the doctor finds any abnormality or pain in the breast, then diagnostic mammogram is recommended.
Breasts ultrasound is done to find the nature of the lump, whether it’s a solid or a cyst filled with fluid. Biopsy: On a finding of a lump, the doctor then asks the patient to go for a biopsy. The doctor removes a sample of breast cells from the lump for analysis. The pathologists then determine whether the cells are malignant or benign. The sample is also analyzed to find out the type of cancer, the grade of cancer and whether the cancer cells have hormone receptors or other receptors that may influence the line of treatment.
is used to create pictures of the interior of the breast. After it is established that the patient is suffering from cancer, the doctor then works to find the stage of cancers, which helps to determine the best treatment options.
In cases of chest problems, generally, there are no early warning signs. Even if there is a lump, it might be too small to feel. So an important way to be cautious about cancer is to be breasts aware. This will help women to know if there are any changes happening in her breasts. Any change in the look and feel should definitely prompt her to visit a doctor. Finding breasts infection as early as possible gives a better chance of successful treatment. The warning signs which should not be ignored and make us rush to the doctor are the following:
• Change in breasts size or shape: If there is swelling, thickening or shrinkage, especially in one chest one should visit a doctor.
• A lump in the organ: It is the most common symptom of breast cancer. These lumps can be hard and painless or maybe painful. Not all lumps are cancerous. These can be cysts which form lumps. Still, it’s important to get it checked.
• Swelling around it, collarbone or armpit: when the breasts cancer spreads to lymph nodes, swelling occurs around collarbone and armpits. The swelling may appear even before a lump is formed in the breast. If this symptom is found one should definitely visit a doctor.
• Skin thickening: If the skin of the breasts gets red or feel thick, and does not get better by taking medicines one should go for tests as it may be a symptom of inflammatory breasts malady.
• Changes in the nipple: If the nipple turn inwards, or the skin gets scaly, or thickens, get checked by the doctor right away as it can be a symptom of breast trouble
• Nipple discharge: If the fluid is reddish in colour, one needs to get checked by the doctor.
• Pain: In case the pain in the breasts are not related to the menstrual cycle and is very severe and persists, then one needs to go to the doctor.
B cancer treatment
there has been a lot of advancement in medical science with regards to the treatment of cancer and breast problem is no exception. after its being established that the patient is suffering fromB cancer, the doctors then plan the treatment to be given. a group of doctors specializing in different areas of cancers treatment such as surgery, radiation oncology and medical oncology work together with the patient to form a treatment plan. depending on the type and stage of the breast illness, the doctors go with the following methods of treatment: local treatments: some treatments are localized to a tumour and do not affect the rest of the body. types of local therapy used are:
• surgery: it involves the removal of a tumour and some surrounding healthy tissues around a tumour. most of the breast remains. this is called lumpectomy. in some cases, the entire breast is removed, commonly known as mastectomy.
• radiation therapy: it involves the use of high energy x-rays or other particles to destroy cancer cells. radiation therapy may be given after or before the surgery. systemic treatments: this involves the use of drugs orally or through the bloodstream, as they can reach to cancer cells almost anywhere in the body. this includes:
• chemotherapy: this is done to destroy the cancer cells. it ensures that the cancer cells lose the ability to grow and divide. • hormonal therapy: this therapy is used for such tumours that test positive for either estrogen or progesterone receptors or use them to grow. by blocking these hormones, cancer recurrence is prevented.
• targeted therapy: this treatment targets the cancer-specific genes, proteins or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. this treatment is much focused and it blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting damage to healthy cells. alternative and complementary methods of treatment: this involves the use of herbs, vitamins and special diets. in some cases, acupuncture or massage are also used. some of these methods might be helpful in relieving symptoms and make the patient feel better.
palliative care: this reduces the side effects caused by the number of therapies taken by the patient. it focuses on improving the quality of life, teaches relaxation techniques and gives emotional support to the patients and their families. so spread the word to take part in the effort of fighting against breast illness.